Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Preliminary Phytochemical studies of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Leaves
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Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. or Kadamb, a huge evergreen tree with large leaves and beautiful ball shaped fruits is commonly found in India. The leaves, fruits and bark of Kadamb posses significant pharmacological properties due to presence of variety of chemical constituents in them. The present study is aimed to evaluate the pharmacognostical, physiochemical and phytochemical parameters for Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. leaves as per the WHO guidelines for herbal drug standardization. WHO emphasized the use of standardized herbs and formulations for safety and best therapeutic results. Pharmacognostical studies shows that the leaves of Kadamb are green to pale yellow, odourless with a bitter and acrid taste. The simple, ovate-elliptical, petiolated leaf sized between 15-50cm in length and upto 26cm width with glossy upper surface, undulated margin and pinnate venation. The powder microscopy shows the presence of aboundant multicellular trichomes, phloem fibres, scleriform xylem vessels, epidermal cells, cork cells and parenchymatous tissues. Physiochemical analysis shows variable extractive values in different solvents with maximum extractives of 19.40±0.011% in petroleum ether. Total Ash value of 8.33±0.015%, Acid Insoluble Ash-2.25±0.005% and Water Soluble Ash-1.25±0.01%, Foreign Matter-2.33±0.12%, Moisture content of 8.12±0.01%, Bitterness value-1.6, Swelling Index-2.17±0.01 and Foaming Index-166.67. Phytochemical analysis of the leaf powder of Anthocephalus cadamba shows the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins and phenolics. The botanical, physical and chemical parameters obtained in this study can be used for establishing the identity and purity of the drug that will lead to safety and efficacy of the herb.
Pharmacognostical, Anthocephalus cadamba, Standardization, Physicochemical, Phytochemical.