Evaluation of Acute Oral Toxicity and Mast Cell Degranulation of an aqueous ethanolic extract of Tritium aestivum Linn.
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The present study was aimed to determine LD50 and to evaluate the safety of aqueous ethanolic (50: 50) extract of the grass of Tritium aestivum by acute oral toxicity study in female mice as per OECD guideline 420. The percentage inhibition of peritoneal mast cell degranulation in the rat by the plant was also studied to establish its potential in the management of asthma.
Materials and Methods
The plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol using cold percolation method. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was carried out to identify the phytoconstituents present in it. The protocol of Limit test at a dose of 2000 mg/kg was used to study the acute oral toxicity. Five nulliparous, non-pregnant albino mice were used for the study. Animals were administered the extract at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. They were observed individually for mortality, wellness parameters, and body weight for 14 days. The in vitro percentage inhibition of mast cell degranulation was studied using the peritoneal fluid, mast cell activating compound 48/80 and the extracts at the concentration levels of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml.
The aqueous ethanolic extract of grass of Tritium aestivum at the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg did not produce any mortality. No change in wellness parameters and body weight were observed for the extract. The LD50 of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanolic extract showed the presence of important phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, terpenoids and anthraquinones. The extract of this plant was found to be potent and had significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation degranulation.
We conclude from this study that the grass of Tritium aestivum is safe and can be used for the treatment of various allergic diseases like asthma. The efficacy of the plant to inhibit mast cell degranulation could be due to the contribution of different phytochemical constituents present in it.
Tritium aestivum, OECD, acute toxicity, mast cell degranulation.