Ceratonia siliqua: Characterization, Pharmaceutical Products and Analysis of Bioactive Compounds: A Review
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Commonly known as the carob tree. The carob tree is native to the mediterranean region, including Southern Europe, Northern Africa, the larger mediterranean islands, the Levant and Middle-East of Western Asia into Iran; and the Canary Islands and Macaronesia. The carat, a unit of mass for gemstones, and of purity for gold, takes its name, indirectly, from the Greek word for a carob seed, kerátion. C. siliqua is the only Mediterranean tree with the main flowering season in autumn (September-November). However, the time and the length of the flowering period depend on local climatic conditions, as with most fruit and nut trees. Carob bean size is a highly variable character, influenced by many environmental factors as well as level of pollination and fruit set. Pollen dispersal is by insects, mainly bees, flies, wasps and night-flying moths. C. siliqua pods provide fodder for ruminants and non-ruminants. Endosperm and embryo of the seed can be ground and used for pet food. The fodder is now being used in zero-grazing in Mediterranean countries. Ripe carob pods contain large amounts of condensed tannins (16–20% of dry weight). Tannins extracted from the pulp act as an anti-diarrhoetic. Ground pulp and seed endosperm are used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products.
Ceratonia siliqua, Pharmaceutical, Bioactive Compounds, Review.