Study on the phytochemical constituents and some biological activities of the toothache plant Acmella oleracea, cultivated in Mizoram, India
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One of the most widely used medicinal plants among the Mizo people of India is Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen (family Asteraceae). In addition to its medicinal properties, it is regularly used as vegetable. Its traditional applications include the treatments of anaemia, body ache, cancer, gastric ulcer and infections, gingivitis, gout, inflammations, laceration, malaria, stammering, and intestinal helminthiasis. In this study, different extracts of the whole plants were prepared using hexane, chloroform and methanol. The methanol extract indicated the presence of highest number of bioactive compounds, such as carbohydrates, phytosterols, flavonoids, and tannins. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity. The plant extract exhibited similar concentration-dependent scavenging activity of the free radicalas that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The total antioxidant activity was estimated against ascorbic acid, and it showed higher value than BHT. Antibacterial activity was studied using the methanol extract and tetracycline as a standard reference. Corresponding to that of the antibiotic, 10 and 20 mg/ml of the plant extract were treated with two Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and two Gram-positivebacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. However, the plant extract showed no antibacterial activity on these species. Nonetheless, the study provides important information on the basic pharmacological properties of the plant.
Acmella oleracea, antioxidant activity, medicinal plant, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical.