Comparative physicochemical, phytochemical and high performance thin layer chromatography evaluation of heart wood and small branches of Pterocarpus marsupium
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Pterocarpus marsupium commonly called Indian kino tree is a medicinal plant widely used in Ayurveda. As per the Ayurvedic literature, heart wood of this plant is used in Krmiroga, Kustha, Prameha, Pandu, and Medodosa. Removal of heart wood from trunk of this tree may make this plant weak and susceptible to damage by insects and natural elements. Due to which availability of this plant may be difficult in near future for use in Indian system of medicine. This work is an attempt to evaluate the possibilities of using small branches in place of heart wood. The standard parameters of small branches of P. marsupium have not been prepared yet. So work is carried out to establish preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical standards of small branches of P. marsupium. Heart wood and small branches of P. marsupium are compared on the basis of physicochemical analysis, phytochemical analysis and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Total phenolic contents of heart wood and small branches in terms of tannic acid equivalent were 36.65±0.90 and 41.91±1.05 mg/g, respectively and total flavonoid contents in terms of querecetin equivalent were 56.30±0.38 and 70.22±1.25 mg/g, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of heartwood and small branches showed the presence of phenols, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, proteins, steroids, flavanoids, coumarin, quinine and furanoids in various extracts tested. HPTLC of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of heart wood and small branches showed different phytochemical profile. Difference in HPTLC profiles suggests that small branches cannot be used in place of heart wood and further research is required to find out the substitute for heart wood of P. marsupium. Study will be helpful in the identification and quality control of P. marsupium and can provide standard HPTLC profiles of P. marsupium with selected solvent system for use as a reference for the proper identification/authentication of the drug. Good amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in small branches and HPTLC profile with many bands indicates that small branches may also have potential active constituents and may be studied for various pharmacological activities.
Pterocarpus marsupium, physicochemical analysis, phytochemical analysis, HPTLC profile.