Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical studies of Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef.: An Ethnomedicinally important root drug of Malvaceae
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Present study highlights the pharmacognostic characters and phytochemical profile of the crude drugs obtained from the leaf and root part of Azanza lampas (Cav.) Alef. (Malvaceae), an important ethnomedicinal plant. Different parts of this plant are traditionally used in curing gonorrhea, syphilis, jaundice, kidney problems, wounds, etc. Pharmacognostic study revealed that epidermal cells of upper and lower leaf surfaces are irregular in shape and their anticlinal walls are wavy in upper surface and straight to wavy in lower surface. In upper surface of leaf, stomata were strictly of anisocytic type and anomocytic type of stomata mixed with anisocytic type observed in lower surface. Stomatal indices of upper and lower surfaces were 8.11 and 16.70, respectively. Palisade ratio was 3.86. Glandular and non-glandular types of trichome were observed in both surfaces of the leaf. Trichome indices were 21.2 and 18.45 in upper and lower surfaces of the leaf, respectively. Phytochemical groups namely alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and glycosides have been detected in leaf and root extracts of this plant. Physical constants like moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash have been determined for both parts of the plant. Moisture content was found higher in root(10.7%) than leaf(6.75%). Total ash value was higher in root (17.72%) than the leaf (9.54%). In leaf, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were 154.42mg of GAE/g and 47.55mg of CE/g which are higher than that of root part. But, the contents of total alkaloids (158.86 mg of PE/g), tannins (78.89 mg of TAE/g) and ascorbic acid (274.34μg/100g) were found higher in root than the leaf part. Considering the good contents of therapeutically important phytochemical groups, both leaf and root parts of this plant are found medicinally very potent. Present study provides some pharmacognostic features by which the crude drugs of this ethnomedicinal plant can properly be identified.
Azanza lampas, Foliar micromorphology, Pharmacognostic study, Phytochemical screening, Physicochemical analysis.