A Review on Steroids and Terpenoids (Stereochemistry, Structural Elucidation, Isolation of Steroids and Terpenoids)
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Steroids contain the backbone of cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene with four hydrocarbon rigs in their structures. They widely exist in tissues of animals and plants and have vital significance in living activities. Steroids include sterol and its derivations. Zymosterol, zoosterol, and phystosterol are the three major forms of sterol. Phytosterol is involved in metabolism of plants. Cholesterol, one of the zoosterols, plays an important role in sustaining the physical state of biomembrane. Beesides, it is involved in atherosclerosis. Bile acid and vitamin D are the commonly seen sterol derivations, both of which are important to the growth and development. Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by deterring herbivores and by attracting predators and parasistes of herbivores. Terpenes are linear or cyclic hydrocarbons that are chemically related to steroids: they are often the precursor of steroids in biosynthesis. Although terpenes are in small quantities in cell, it has pivotal biology functions in cell signaling, metabolism, and biosynthesis. Terpenes have desirable properties for use in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industreies. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of medicinal plants and flowers. Essential oils are used widely as fragrances in perfumery, and in medicine and alternative medicine and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpnes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used if food additives. Vitamin A is a terpenold.
Steroids, Cholesterol, Isolation, Stereochemistry, Isoprene Rule and General method.