Trajectories of Socio-Economic Change in Haryana, up to First Millennium CE
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This essay traces the broad stages of socio-economic development for over two millennia in Haryana from the proto-historic period to the early medieval period. Beginning with the rural, semi-nomadic, agro-pastoral economy of pre-literate, pre-class, pre-state Vedic people, the region underwent significant economic transformations in the sixth century BCE: widespread use of iron, extensive sedentary agriculture, trade, and urbanization. These had profound social consequences in that they led to emergence of caste-and state-systems. These developments were accelerated over time, leading to consolidation of village communities, proliferation of occupational castes (jatis), intensification of social inequalities, and political ascendency of clans and emergence of clan-based ruling elites by the first millennium CE.
Vedic, Aryans, iron, Mauryan, Rajputs, untouchability, caste peasantry, trade, clan-monarchies.