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Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
Year : 2018, Volume : 9, Issue : 1
First page : ( 325) Last page : ( 328)
Print ISSN : 0975-6795. Online ISSN : 2321-5828.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2321-5828.2018.00058.X

Trajectories of Socio-Economic Change in Haryana, up to First Millennium CE

Bhardwaj Suraj Bhan*

Associate Professor, Department of History, Motilal Nehru College, South Campus University of Delhi, Delhi

*Corresponding Author Email:

Online published on 24 May, 2018.


This essay traces the broad stages of socio-economic development for over two millennia in Haryana from the proto-historic period to the early medieval period. Beginning with the rural, semi-nomadic, agro-pastoral economy of pre-literate, pre-class, pre-state Vedic people, the region underwent significant economic transformations in the sixth century BCE: widespread use of iron, extensive sedentary agriculture, trade, and urbanization. These had profound social consequences in that they led to emergence of caste-and state-systems. These developments were accelerated over time, leading to consolidation of village communities, proliferation of occupational castes (jatis), intensification of social inequalities, and political ascendency of clans and emergence of clan-based ruling elites by the first millennium CE.



Vedic, Aryans, iron, Mauryan, Rajputs, untouchability, caste peasantry, trade, clan-monarchies.


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