‘SMART’ Approach for Inclusion of Elderly in India: A Conceptual Framework
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A man's life is normally divides into five main stages namely infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. In each of these stages, an individual has to find himself in different situations and face different problems. The old age is not without problems. In old age, physical strength deteriorates, mental stability diminishes; money power becomes bleak coupled with negligence from the younger generation. At this stage, we need to protect and preserve our elder generations. This is not only for sake elder but also for the present generations. The world is in the midst of a unique and irreversible process of demographic transition that will result in older populations everywhere. As fertility rates decline, the proportion of persons aged 60 and over expected to double between 2007 and 2050, and their actual number will more than triple, reaching 2 billion by 2050. In most countries, the number of those over 80 is likely to quadruple to nearly 400 million by then. According to the census, 2011, the elderly population account for nearly 104 million in India. The programmes and the policies of the UNO, WHO and other global agencies aim at encourages active ageing by optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance the quality of life as people age. The local and global governments, autonomous bodies, NGOs and even the corporate world are involved in formulating and implementing the policies. All the programmes are meant to aid, prevent neglect, abuse, and exploitation and provide assistance to those deprived and mainstream them. There are two broad objectives of the study were formulated; one is to understand the context of aged population and second is to establish a framework for inclusion of older people to enhance their quality of life as people age. For reaching this above objective, the researcher formulated an approach called ‘SMART’ for the inclusion of older people. The study is based on the review and analysis of available secondary data sources has been collected through published reports, books, research articles, documents, monographs of different NGOs, CBOs, UNO, WHO and Government of India portals. Based on the secondary data, and discussions of workshop organised by the Centre for Study Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy (CSSEIP), Andhra University, Visakhapatnam were also undertaken by the researcher to adopt and frame the concept of ‘SMART’ model for inclusion of older people to enhance their quality of life as people age.
Old-age, Older People, Aging, Aged-friendly, SMART Approach, Inclusion of Elderly.