Effect of organic nitrogen sources on growth, yield, quality, water productivity and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different planting methods in mid-hills of Sikkim Himalayas
In order to evaluate the effect of organic sources of nitrogen on growth, yield, water productivity and economics of rice under different methods of planting in hilly ecosystems of north-east India, an experiment was carried out in kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that SRI recorded significantly higher values for all growth parameters (plant height, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, flag leaf length, tillers/m2, root volume and root dry weight), yield attributing characters (productive tillers/m2, panicle length, grains/panicle, filled grains/panicle and test weight), water productivity (kg grain/m3 of water), grain yield and economics over the CP. This caused 36.84 and 29.41, 34 and 28, 60.0 and 55.3% improvement in water productivity, grain yield and net returns over the CP during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Among the organic sources of nitrogen, application of 25% RDN through FYM+25% RDN through VC+25% RDN through PM+25% RDN through MC significantly enhanced the growth, yield attributing characters, water productivity (0.26 and 0.23 kg of grain/water m3), grain yield (3.53 and 3.41 t/ha), net returns (88 x 103 and 83 x 103 Rs./ha) and B: C ratio (1.84 and 1.74) in 2013 and 2014, respectively.
Dry matter accumulation, mountain ecosystems, net returns, organic nitrogen sources, SRI.