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Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences
Year : 2017, Volume : 8, Issue : 2
First page : ( 107) Last page : ( 112)
Print ISSN : 2394-2053. Online ISSN : 2394-2061.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2394-2061.2017.00003.9

The endocrine impact of long term risperidone therapy in Asian Indian patients

Ravan JP Russell1,*, Thomas Naveen2, Paul Thomas3, Prasanna Samuel4, Thomas Nihal5, Ramaswamy Deepa6

1Associate Professor and Head of Unit II, Post Graduate of Psychiatry, Kalinga Institute of Medical Science and PBMH, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

2Consultant Psychiatrist, Melbourne Health, Australia

3Department of Endocrinology, CMC Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

4Department of Biostatistics and Research, CMC Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

5Professor of Endocrinology, CMC Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

6Professor and Unit Head, Department of Psychiatry, CMC Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

*Correspondence: Dr JP Russell Ravan, MD, DPM (CMC Vellore), Associate Prof and Head of Unit II, Post Graduate of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Science and PBMH, Bhubaneswar-751024, Odisha, India. jpr_219@yahoo.co.in

Online published on 30 June, 2017.



Risperidone is a widely used antipsychotic, known to cause secondary hyperprolactinaemia. Related problems include bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D deficiency. However, there is insufficient information about the extent, severity, and association between these side effects, particularly in the Asian population. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency in patients taking risperidone for more than one year. Also, to investigate whether erectile dysfunction (ED) or menstrual dysfunction (MD) can be used as a proxy indicator of BMD loss in such patients, replacing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Method: Sixty-five patients (mean age 29.6) receiving risperidone as the only prolactin raising medication for minimum period of one year were selected taking into consideration the socio-demographic and clinical variables. History of ED/MD, DEXA measurement of their lumbar and hip bone, and endocrine variables were recorded. Results: The prevalence of hyperprolactinaemia in female was found to be 84.4% and in males 78.8%; females being 1.4 times more at risk than males. Abnormal BMD was found in more than 40% of the subjects. Furthermore, 30% had vitamin D deficiency and 60.8% had vitamin D insufficiency. A statistically significant association was observed between ED/MD and BMD (odds ration [OR] 3.71, confidence interval [CI] 1.23–11.24, p=0.02), but this varied according to the gender. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients on long term risperidone are at high risk of developing hyperprolactinaemia, reduced BMD and Vitamin D, although multiple contributory factors or mechanisms can be suggested. Clinically, ED was more significantly associated with changes in BMD.



Antipsychotic, Hyperprolactinaemia, Bone Mineral Density, Erectile Dysfunction, Menstrual Dysfunction.


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