A century progress of research on phytoplasma diseases in India
*Corresponding author e-mail: Govind P. Rao (firstname.lastname@example.org)
**Amit Yadav (email@example.com)
Phytoplasmas have been found associated with 129 plant species in India including vegetables, legumes, spices, medicinal plants and ornamental plants, cash and oil crops, palms, fruit trees and weeds, where ten 16Sr groups of phytoplasmas have been identified so far. Sesame phyllody, brinjal little leaf, sugarcane grassy shoot, sandal spike, coconut root wilt, areca nut yellow leaf and many diseases in ornamental plants are causing the most severe economic losses in the country. Identified phytoplasmas are related to ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, ‘Ca. P. pruni’, ‘Ca. P. ziziphi’, ‘Ca. P. trifolii’, ‘Ca. P. solani’, ‘Ca. P. cynodontis’, ‘Ca. P. oryzae’, ‘Ca. P. phoenicium’, ‘Ca. P. australasia’ and ‘Ca. P. pini’. Among them ‘Ca. P. asteris’-related strains (aster yellows, 16SrI group) are the prevalent phytoplasmas identified associated with 62 diseases followed by phytoplasmas classified in 16SrII, 16SrVI, 16SrXIV and 16SrXI groups. At least seven insect vectors, belonging to leafhoppers and planthoppers species, have been reported as putative or natural vectors for important phytoplasma diseases. The majority of phytoplasma disease reports are from north and south part of India. Little attempt has been made to genomics, epidemiology, host phytoplasma interaction and management aspects of these diseases. Presently the suggested effective management practices in India are growing resistant varieties, control of insect vectors, weed species as alternative hosts and use of healthy planting materials.
phytoplasma diversity, India, distribution, history, epidemiology, host metabolic interaction, management.