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Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science
Year : 2004, Volume : 52, Issue : 1
First page : ( 89) Last page : ( 94)
Print ISSN : 0019-638X.

Heavy Metal Content of Different Effluents and their Relative Availability in Soils Irrigated with Effluent Waters around Major Industrial Cities of Gujarat

Patel K.P.*, Pandya R.R., Maliwal G.L., Patel K.C., Ramani V.P., George V.

Micronutrient Project (ICAR), Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand, Gujarat, 388110

*Corresponding author: (E-mail: kppatel@gauanand.com)

Received:  July,  2002; Accepted:  February,  2004.

Abstract

The discharge of effluents from the industries situated around the major cities of Gujarat to nearby rivers or open land is of great concern with respect to soil-plant-water pollution as the farmers around these areas are using effluents or contaminated river/well water for irrigation purpose. Since these effluents contain high amount of trace elements and other pollutant heavy metals, a study was conducted to characterize and assess their suitability for irrigation. The soil, plant, effluent and well-water samples collected were analysed for the relevant parameters. The COD value of effluents from Ankleshwar site was extremely high, while the BOD values were within the safe limit in all the cases. The effluents from Ankleshwar site were the most polluted with respect to different elements viz., Fe, Cu, Mn, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr. The dissolved oxygen was observed only in well-water and not in effluents. The results of relative availability of trace and heavy metals indicated that Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd were the most available elements in different soils. However, the soils continuously irrigated with effluents showed the highest Cu availability and Mn, Cu, Cd and Ni moderately available, while Fe and Cr indicated low availability. The relative availability of Pb was highest in soils near Ahmedabad and Ankleshwar irrigated with sewage mixed with industrial effluent. The availability of Zn was found to be more in soils having acidic soil reaction. Among different soil properties, organic carbon showed significant positive correlation with most of the trace and heavy metals and was found to be the most influential parameter on availability of these elements followed by soil pH and EC. The content of Cr in different crops grown on polluted soils was very high in spite of its low level in all the soils.

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Key words

Relative availability, effluents, trace and heavy metals.

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