Antiviral activity of few selected indigenous plants against Bovine Herpes Virus-1
*Email id: email@example.com
Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of medicine all over the world in curing human as well as animals. There is an increasing need for substances with antiviral activity as there are less number of synthetic antiviral drugs available. The emergence of resistant virus strains as well as their various side effects due to their frequent use, lead to evolve safer and affordable alternate method by utilising extracts of medicinal plants as antiviral agents. Therefore, in this study 10 medicinal plants viz. Ocimum sanctum, Mitragyna parvifolia, Phyllanthus nirurii, Boerhavia diffusa, Acacia nilotica, Argemone mexicana, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Pteris vittata, Azadirachta indica and Diospyroa cordifolia were screened against Bovine Herpes Virus, type-1, causing Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis disease, abortion in 5–7 month of pregnancy in bovines and leading to high economic loss. The in vitro antiviral potential of these plant extracts against BHV-1 were tested by cytopathic inhibition test using MDBK cell line. Prior to in vitro antiviral test, maximum nontoxic dose of plant extracts in MDBK cell line were determined by microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT assay).
Results indicated that the nontoxic concentration of Ocimum sanctum, act as a potent inhibitor of BHV-1 virus, by showing 85.3% protection against this virus. Pteris vittata, Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica and Mitragyna parvifolia also showed 40–62% protection against BHV-1. Further research is needed to use these plant extracts, in vivo, in the infected animals and evaluate their effectiveness. Elucidation of the active constituents in these five plant extracts, responsible for the antiviral activity, will lead to the development of potent antiviral drug, which can be safer, cost effective and can be used in the field in promoting rural development and prosperity.
Bovine herpes virus-1, Medicinal plants, Antiviral, Cytopathic inhibition test.