In vitro techniques towards genetic enhancement of food legumes – A review
Food legumes constitute an integral part of systematic global agricultural research due to their significance as the concentrated source of proteins, mineral elements and their role in improving soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Besides conventional methods of genetic improvement of food legumes, modern biotechnological tools involving in vitro technology have played an important role for creation of additional genetic variability. Despite recalcitrancy and high genotype dependency of food legumes, significant progress has been achieved in somatic embryogenesis, embryo rescue and genetic transformation. Numerous researches have been undertaken on various factors such as role of donor plant genotype, their growth conditions, pre-treatments, anther/microspore stage, culture media and environment, effect of hormones, diploidization procedures, etc. which influence somatic embryogenesis, androgenesis and regeneration. The establishment of stable and reproducible regeneration protocols has resulted in grand commercial success of transgenic soybean globally and made it a leading biotech crop of the world. Similarly, successful embryo rescue protocols have made wide crosses a ground reality in food legumes. Nonetheless, protoplast regeneration and in vitro mutagenesis have witnessed only a little progress, and doubled haploidy breeding still remains a mystery to be solved. This review discusses the progress made, constraints encountered and future prospects of in vitro technology towards genetic enhancement of food Food legumes.
Food legumes, Genetic transformation, Haploidy breeding, In vitro techniques, Organogenesis, Protoplast regeneration, Somatic embryogenesis, Tissue culture.