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Journal of Camel Practice and Research
Year : 2016, Volume : 23, Issue : 2
First page : ( 207) Last page : ( 211)
Print ISSN : 0971-6777. Online ISSN : 2277-8934.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2277-8934.2016.00035.7

A review of anaesthetic drugs used for premedication, sedation, induction and maintenance in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in field situations

Ismail Zuhair Bani

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid-22110, Jordan. Email: zuhair72@just.edu.jo

Online published on 4 February, 2017.


The objectives of this article were to review all scientific data regarding anaesthetic drugs and anaesthetic protocols used for pre-medication, sedation, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the field. Eighteen recent articles were included in the review with the most common drugs used for premedication/sedation in camels were xylazine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine, tramadol and butorphanol. For induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, the following drugs were used most commonly: propofol, ketamine, xylazine-ketamine, ketamine-romifidine-diazepam, medetomidine-ketamine, propofol-xylazine, propofol-xylazine-diazepam, tramadol-xylazine, medetomidine-ketamine, medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol and midazolam-propofol. The drugs used to reverse the effects of α-2 agonists were atipamezole and natrelexone. The effective doses and reported side effects were discussed.



Dromedary camels, field anaesthesia, induction, sedation.


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