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Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology
Year : 2004, Volume : 28, Issue : 2
First page : ( 149)
Print ISSN : 0250-4758.

Studies on pathological effects of linguda (Diplazium esculentum, Retz.) in laboratory rats and guinea pigs

Gangwar Neeraj Kumar

Deemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (UP)


Title of the ThesisStudies on pathological effects of linguda (Diplazium esculentum, Retz.) in laboratory rats and guinea pigs.
Name of the ScholarNeeraj Kumar Gangwar
Name of the GuideDr. R. Somvanshi
UniversityDeemed University, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (UP)

India Field survey conducted around Bhowali area, Distt. Nainital revealed that linguda or Kothira (Diplazium esculentum) is used as a seasonal vegetable by hill people and its adverse effects after consumption are not known. In present study, an attempt was made to elucidate clinical, haematological, biochemical and immunopathological effects of frozen (FL) and shade-dried linguda (SDL) @ 30% feeding in concentrate ration or as a green fodder for 30 days to rats and guinea pigs. During next 30 days, effects of discontinuation of linguda feeding were also evaluated. For this, 15 rats and equal number of guinea pigs in each FLGr, SDLGr and CGr were taken for experimentation and 4 animals of each group were sacrificed on 30 and 60 DPF for detailed studies. linguda fed rats and guinea pigs did not exhibit any appreciable clinical signs except for poor growth, specially in FLGr of guinea pigs. Both FLGr and SDLGr of rats showed decreased body weight while only FLGr of guinea pigs had this effect. Rats of FLGr and SDLGr showed increased spontaneous (vertical and horizontal) and decreased forced motor activity. Periodic urine analysis failed to show any changes in either group of rats and/or guinea pigs. Haematological studies in rats and guinea pigs although showed significant alternations in values of blood glucose, TEC, ESR, MCV, MCH, TLC, N, L and M but failed to show specific trend in both FLGr and SDLGr. Serum biochemistry failed to revealed specific trend in serum protein profile (TP, PP, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio), SGPT, urea and level of Ca, P with exception of increase of SCOT in FLGr of rats as well as in guinea pigs and decrease in PP in SDLGr of both species of animals. Tissue biochemistry of visceral organs revealed specific trend of changes in both LGr of guinea pigs than rats. FLGr of rats and guinea pigs showed increase in LP, lipase and SDH. More or less similar effects was seen in SDLGr of guinea pigs. Only lipase showed significant increases in linguda group (LGr) in both species of animals.

No mortality occurred in experimental rats whereas 53% guinea pigs of FLGr died. No specific gross lesions were seen in LGr of rats. On necropsy pronounced vascular changes were seen in visceral organs in FLGr and SDLGr of guinea pigs. As compared to guinea pigs pathological changes were less pronounced in rats. Similarly, significant alterations were seen in relative weight of certain visceral organs (brain, lungs and liver) of FLGr of dead guinea pigs than other groups. SEM of oesophagus and stomach from both LGr and CGr conducted on 30 DPF failed to show any abnormal changes in mucosa. Histopathologically, vascular and other associated changes were seen in brain and visceral organs of guinea pigs and rats. However, these animals failed to show progressive or any specific lesions. In another experiment, SDL extract was drenched for 15 days to rats and guinea pigs and these animals were evaluated for effect on immune system. HIR revealed no definite trend in HA titres in rats, though slight decrease in guinea pigs after challenge with 1% SRBC. CMI response showed, increase in ear pinna thickness on 24h post challenge against ovalbumin in rats and guinea pigs and decrease at 48 and 72h, only in guinea pigs. Histopathologically, mild cellular DTH type reaction was observed in ear pinna skin of guinea pigs which was relatively lesser in rats. Rat and guinea pig lymphocytes incubated in vitro with methanolic extract of linguda in concentration of 20,40 50 ml for 1 and 2 h, stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide mixture and examined under fluorescent microscope failed to reveal any apoptotic bodies. Shade-and freeze-dried samples of linguda showed absence of fern toxin ptaquiloside but presence of 10.94 to 16.36 mg/kg pterosin B only in two of the freeze-dried samples by HPLC method. It was concluded that linguda caused mild pathologic effects in rats while feeding of frozen linguda induced mortality and moderate type of clinico-pathological effects in guinea pigs.


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