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Indian Journal of Soil Conservation
Year : 2015, Volume : 43, Issue : 1
First page : ( 15) Last page : ( 23)
Print ISSN : 0970-3349. Online ISSN : 0976-1721.

Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater quality in west Delhi, India

Adhikary Partha Pratim1,*, Chandrasekharan H.2, Dash Ch. Jyotiprava1, Kumar Gopal3

1ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Research Centre, Koraput-763002, Odisha

2ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012

3ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Research Centre, Vasad-388306, Gujarat

*E-mail: ppadhikary@gmail.com

Online published on 24 April, 2015.

Abstract

The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater of west Delhi were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, scaling potential and permeability of groundwater. Ninety three groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in west Delhi and analyzed for various chemical parameters. The concentrations of major cations and anions were in the order of Na+ > Mg++ > Ca++ > K+ and Cl > SO4−- > HCO3 > NO3, respectively. The main hydrochemical facets of water were Na-K-Cl-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO-Cl4 types. The electrical conductivity (EC) represents a clear sign of groundwater contamination from drain water and salts of unused agrochemicals. The Gibbs diagram indicates that evaporation is the dominant mechanism that control groundwater ion chemistry. Chloride distribution in the study area showed that, groundwater with chloride concentration of < 30 meq L −1 is originated naturally, but the origin of higher concentration is anthropogenic in nature. 86% of the samples have scale forming ability and only 14% are showing corrosive tendency. The encrustation tendency is due to CaCO3 precipitation and hence need for treatment of water to prevent scaling. In general, the permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields. USSL and Wilcox diagram showed that nearly 60% of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation. Thus, this kind of investigation can create suitable management plans to protect aquifer as well as remedial measures for contaminated groundwater by natural and manmade activities.

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Keywords

Delhi, Groundwater pollution, Hydrochemistry, Irrigation suitability, Wilcox diagram.

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