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Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development
Year : 2019, Volume : 10, Issue : 8
First page : ( 283) Last page : ( 289)
Print ISSN : 0976-0245. Online ISSN : 0976-5506.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0976-5506.2019.01893.X

Are Muslims Incurring Higher Out-of-Pocket Expenditures than Hindus in Reproductive Healthcare at Sub-District Levels in Karnataka?

Sarkar Rupa1,*, Mahesh E2

1PhD Economics Scholar, Adjunct Faculty, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore

2Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalor

*Corresponding author Rupa Sarkar PhD Economics Scholar, Adjunct Faculty, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bangalore E-mail: rupa.sarkar@res.christuniversity.in

Online published on 26 September, 2019.


Background and Objective

This study was undertaken to evaluate level of differences found in Out-ofpocket expenditures (OOPE) among Hindus and Muslims, OOPE being a sub-component while constructing reproductive health account (RHA) matrices for Ramanagara district, Karnataka.


Adopting multistage stratified sampling method, individual level data was collected using survey tools, catering to six dimensions of RH functions, taken from ‘WHO Guide to produce RH Sub-Account’. 517 Hindu and Muslim men and women meeting inclusion criteria of reproductive age (15–49) incurring RH expenditures in last one year were included followed later by only 382 uninsured individuals for hypothesis testing.


Muslims showing almost double OOPE in RH necessitated hypothesis testing of significant difference in OOPE, equating groups, post exclusion of insured individuals. Statistically significant difference was revealed in RH expenditures using Mann-Whitney U test.

Interpretations and conclusions

Vicious cycle of disparity in education levels, lower income levels, negligible health coverage, strenuous work conditions, poor living standards, repeated RH contingencies leading to massive borrowing financed OOPE in RH continues.



Reproductive health, Health expenditures, OOP health expenditure, Health insurance, Health and Inequality.


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