Self Care Practices among People with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in an Urban Area of Ernakulam, Kerala
*Corresponding author: Teena Mary Joy, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Science, Ponekkara, Kochi-682041, Email: email@example.com
Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle-and low-income countries. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes worldwide. The Crude prevalence rate in the urban areas of India is thought to be 9%, while in Kerala it was estimated to be around 20%. Diabetes can be controlled and its consequences avoided with proper self-care practices. This study attempts to assess the current self-care practices among people with diabetes in a selected urban area of Ernakulam district.
The cross sectional studies included 240 households, which were selected using systematic random sampling. Trained interns used a validated questionnaire-diabetes self-management questionnaire (DSMQ), to collect data. Self-care practices were assessed using a 16-item questionnaire. The scale score ranges from 0–10. People who obtained ≥6.67 were considered to have good self-care practices.
Out of 99 people with type two diabetes mellitus in the survey, 68 answered Diabetic Self-care Management Questionnaire. Mean age of the study participants was 62.59 (SD +/-11.2). Majority of the respondents were males (57.4%). Overall 51% of people obtained high score (CI 39.13–62.87). In the sub domain scores 60.3% of people got low score in physical activity, and 54.4% people obtained low score in the domain of dietary care. People with higher education obtained higher scores compared to people with low educational background (p=<0.005).
The result of this study shows that the self-care behaviour among people with diabetes in urban areas of Ernakulum were poor in the domain of physical activity and dietary care. Non-compliance to diabetic management is expected to increase the complications and increase the cost of health care. A good diabetes self-management behaviour change communication program at the primary care level with emphasis on motivating good self-care behaviours are the need of the hour.
Self care practices, Type II diabetes mellitus, Lifestyle-modifications.