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International Journal of Nursing Education
Year : 2015, Volume : 7, Issue : 1
First page : ( 166) Last page : ( 169)
Print ISSN : 0974-9349. Online ISSN : 0974-9357.
Article DOI : 10.5958/0974-9357.2015.00034.3

Recurrent Miscarriages: Causes, Management and Impact by Applying the Transactional Model of Stress

Anwar Shahnaz, Instructor, Jan Rafat, Associate Professor

Affiliated with the Aga Khan University Hospital School of Nursing and Midwifery, Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan

Online published on 19 January, 2015.


The term recurrent miscarriage includes all pregnancy losses from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. 1 Miscarriage is a multifaceted biologic and psychological experience, affecting 1% of couples trying to conceive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss about the causes, impact, and management of recurrent miscarriage by using the transactional model of stress. The exact cause of miscarriage is unknown; but, increased anticardiolipin antibodies, increased maternal age translocation of parental chromosomes, anatomical variation such as septate uterus, and presence of genital tract infections can lead to miscarriage. It is a stressful event; and, women respond to it in a variety of ways. Some woman may end up in having altered marital relationships, and others may suffer from psychological problems such as sadness, anger, guilt, anxiety, and lack of interest. Thus, this puts the burden on the health care providers to identify and address medical and psychological issues; and encourage for follow-up counseling that is required to minimize discomfort and enhance coping strategies for living a happy life.



Recurrent MiscarriageTransactional Model of StressBiological and Psychological ExperienceCounselingCoping Strategies.


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