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International Journal of Nursing Education and Research
Year : 2016, Volume : 4, Issue : 1
First page : ( 15) Last page : ( 23)
Print ISSN : 2347–8640. Online ISSN : 2454–2660.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2454–2660.2016.00003.X

A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Warm Compress on level of Dry Eye among Elderly Adults in a selected Old Age Home, Mangalore

Mathew Bibin*

Kailkeri Rukmini Shetty Memorial College of Nursing Mangalore, (RGUHS), Plakkoottathil (House), Kozhichal (PO), Cherupuzha (Via), Kannur (Dist), Pin: 670511

*Corresponding Author Email:

Online published on 23 May, 2016.

Abstract

Dry eye syndrome is a common disorder of the tear film among elderly adults. Dry eye is caused by decreased tear production, excessive tear evaporation, and an abnormality in the production of mucus or lipids normally found in the tear layer, or a combination of these. Poor production of tears by the lacrimal gland may be a result of age, hormonal changes, or various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Evaporative loss of the watery tear layer is usually a result of an insufficient overlying lipid layer. Dry eyes can usually be diagnosed by the symptoms alone. A slit lamp examination can be performed to diagnose dry eyes and to document any damage to the eye. A Schimer's test can measure the amount of moisture bathing the eye. Health care professionals have the responsibilities to minimise the level of dry eye among elderly adults by various measures such as warm compression, hygienic care, and dietary modification. Moreover, it minimizes the risk of infection and integrated treatment for any associated dry eye syndrome.

Aim

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of warm compress on level of dry eye among elderly adults in missionaries of charity, Mangalore.

Objectives

  1. To assess the level of dry eye among elderly adults in both experimental and control group.

  2. To evaluate the effectiveness of warm compress on level of dry eye among elderly adults.

  3. To associate the level of dry eye among elderly adults with their selected demographic variable and clinical variable in both experimental and control group.

Methods

In view of problem under study and to accomplish the objectives of the study the quasi experimental non randomized design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of warm compress on level of dry eye among elderly adults. The conceptual framework of the present study was developed by modification of Widenbach's prescription theory. The sample consisted of 60 elderly adults, with 30 in each group from a selected old age home at Mangalore. Purposive sampling technique was used to select elderly adults. Data was collected from 25th September to 7th October 2013. Written permission was obtained from the concerned authorities to conduct the study and informed consent was obtained from elderly adults prior to the data collection process. On the first day, pre-test was conducted after which 5 minutes warm compress was given for 5 consecutive days. The data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Paired‘t’ test was used to find out the effectiveness of warm compression on level of dry eye and chi-square was used to find the association of pre test level of dry eye and score with selected demographic variable.

Results

Result of this study showed that in the pre-test level of dry eye among elderly adults in experimental group was equal in 5 (16.7%) which mild and severe level of dry eye, and 20 (66.7) had moderate level of dry eye and the mean, SD scores were 6.07, 2.377, whereas in the post test experimental group 3(10.0) had mild level of dry eye, 5(16.7%) had severe level of dry eye, and 22(73.3%) had moderate level of dry eye. This showed that there was significant improvement in the level of dry eye after the application of warm compress on level of dry eye. The difference in mean level of dry eye sore was statistically significant at 0.05 level (t59=14.917, p<0.05), whereas in the pre-test control group 1 (3.3%) had severe level of dry eye, 6 (20%) had mild level of dry eye, 23 (76.7%) had moderate level of dry eye and the mean, SD scores were 6.20, 2.091. The control group has not undergone any treatment, and therefore, the post-test scores were same as those in the pre-test. There was no significant association between pre-test level of dry eye level and selected demographic variables at 0.05 level of significance.

Interpretation and conclusion

The finding of the study emphasizes the need for introducing warm compression on level of dry eye among elderly adults. The study proved that the level of dry eye among elderly adults had minimized to a remarkable extent after the Application of warm compress. Hence, warm compress was an effective strategy for providing information and minimize the risk dry eye.

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Keywords

Schimer's test, dry eye, lacrimal gland, warm compress.

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