Sex Determination and Personal Identification using Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum-A Forensic Radiographic Study
To examine the variations in frontal sinus and nasal septum, its combinations using postero-anterior cephalogram for its use in personnel identification, sex determination in forensics.
Materials and Method
96 Digital PA cephalograms taken on Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric system were examined for patterns of Frontal Sinus (Symmetry, lobulations) and Nasal Septum. The average area of frontal sinus was recorded for both males and females.
The analysis on the frontal sinus pattern showed that FS asymmetry is seen in n=50 (63.45%) of subjects whereas symmetry in n=15(23%). On analyzing the nasal septum deviation pattern, straight nasal septum n=29(30.2%) was most commonly seen followed by left deviated nasal septum n=23(23.95%), right deviated nasal septum n=19(19.79%), sigmoidal nasal septum n=14(14.58%) and reverse sigmoidal nasal septum n=11(11.45%). There is no sexual dimorphism in the patterns of frontal sinus and nasal septum. The total lobulation of FS on right side, mean area of FS were sexually dimorphic.425 unique combinations of frontal sinus pattern and nasal septum deviation pattern with lobulations were reported. The sensitivity, specificity and discriminant function analysis showed that the use of area and lobulations of frontal sinus is about 71% reliable in forensics.
Combined use of the nasal septum and frontal sinus patterns along with the area and lobulations of frontal sinus using posteroanterior cephalogram will be of quite useful tool and an easy, quick method for a tentative screening in case of mass disasters for sex determination and personal identification.
Frontal sinus, nasal septum, personal identification, forensic study, posteroanterior skull radiograph, Sex determination.