An Exploratory Study to Identify Problems Related to old age and Adaptive Strategies used by Elderly from a Selected Urban Community in a Metropolitan City of Maharashtra
*Corresponding Author's Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Old age can be broadly characterized by time-altered changes in an individual's biological, psychological and health related capabilities and it's implication for the consequent changes in the individual role in the society. This immediately implies care for an attentive focus on the elderly and the major concern in old age also talks much about abuse. Old age problem has been identified as a major public health problem. Multiple variables are responsible for the problems of elderly in areas of physical, psychological, social and last but not least abuse. The social problem of abuse of older people exist throughout the country but in general we know very little the fact. In elderly problems are prevailing and is also significant but it goes unrecognized, thereby contributing to the development of further problem. This study reviews the prevalence of problems of elderly, with a specific focus on areas like physical, psychological, social, economical problem and abuse. The findings of the study will provide direction to the health care providers to help the elderly by providing adequate knowledge, constant support and reinforcement, based on their needs and problems.
Objectives of The Study
1. To identify the existing problems faced by elderly from a selected urban community in a metropolitan city of Maharashtra.
2. To identify the adaptive strategies used to cope with the problems by elderly from a selected urban community in a metropolitan city of Maharashtra.
3. To associate selected problems with selected demographic variables of elderly from a selected urban community in a metropolitan city of Maharashtra.
In this study Conceptual framework based on Roy's Adaptation Model used. The exploratory descriptive approach was used to illicit data. Non probability purposive sampling technique was adopted for selection of the samples. The sample consisted of one fifty elderly from a selected urban community in a metropolitan city of Maharashtra. Semi structure interview technique was used by the investigator for data collection as the information could be elicited on a personal interaction (face to face contact) with the client. The administration of semi structured questionnaire took 20–30 minutes for each samples.
Major Study Findings
The collected data was analyzed in terms of the objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. Section 1: This section deals with the analysis of data related to the demographic variables. It reveals that 58.0% subjects belonged to the age group 60–69 years. The study reveals that 44.0% were males followed by 56.0% were females. The subjects who belong to nuclear family were 26.0% whereas 74% belong to joint family. The study also reveals that 71.3% subjects were married. The study also emphasized that 20.7% subjects were illiterate followed by 39.3% of the subjects were educated.
When taken into account the dependency of the elderly major source of income was from husband/wife/Child 65.3%. When spoken about elderly this study also focuses on the major co-morbidities which are Hypertension 47.8%, Diabetic Mellitus 43.3% and Heart disease 13.4%.
Section 2 A: This section deals with the analysis and interpretation of data related with various problems including physical problems, psychological problems, social problems and various adaptive strategies used by the elderly. A total of 12% of the subjects had other major problem like Palpitation and Pneumonia, 14.6% of elderly had constipation, subjects have integumentary problems such as pigmentation (6.7%) and itching (0.7%), back pain was seen in 6.7% of elderly, Psychological problems like depression and hopelessness were seen among the elderly. Out of 150 samples, 15 have inculcated diet modification as an adaptive strategy. Rest was preferred by 5.3% of respondents. Other strategies like yoga and walk is used by 0.7% and 3.3% of elderly respectively. Most drugs used by the subjects are antacid, laxatives (5.3% each) and calcium supplements are used by only 6.7% of elderly.
Section 2 B: This section deals with the analysis and interpretation of data related with various abuse of elderly such as financial abuse, emotional/verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect. The majority of the subjects witnessed emotional/verbal abuse i.e., 14.7%.
Section 3: This section deals with the association of abuse and neglect with selected demographic variables of age, gender, marital status, type of family, co-morbidity.
In regard to age the calculated x2 values is less than the table value, therefore null hypothesis is accepted.
Problems of elderly are a universal significant factor of concern, thereby requiring a comprehensive approach. For the elderly population, communication between the health care team and the elderly can become a key factor in verbalizing the problems and decreasing the intensity of the problem. Major problems of elderly like abuse can be tackled by giving adequate information to the health care providers and also care givers.
Health education along with constant support and reinforcement can uplift the morale of the elderly.
Conflict resolution styles, Nursing Professionals.