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International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology
Year : 2016, Volume : 9, Issue : 6
First page : ( 925) Last page : ( 935)
Print ISSN : 0974-1712. Online ISSN : 2230-732X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2230-732X.2016.00120.0

Review on Physiological Disorders of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Causes and Management Approach

Mishra D.S.1, Tripathi Arunima2, Nimbolkar P.K.3,*

1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, U.S. Nagar, India

2Rajmohini Devi College of Agriculture & Research Centre, Ambikapur, Sargujja-497 001, Chhatishgarh, India

3Division of Fruit Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-5600 89, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding author: prashantnimbolkar111@gmail.com

Online published on 21 January, 2017.


Apart from insects, pests and diseases, physiological disorders are one of the major threats to fruit industry which cause economic losses worldwide. Many tropical and subtropical fruit crops (Mango, Banana, Citrus, Grape, Papaya, litchi, loquat etc.) are vulnerable to different physiological disorders like spongy tissue, chock throat, granulation, pink berries, bumpy fruits, fruit cracking and purple spot respectively. Adverse environmental conditions such as high or low temperature, moisture content, nutritional and hormonal imbalance, improper pollination or fertilization etc. cause abnormal external or internal conditions as well as abnormal growth pattern of fruits collectively known as physiological disorders. Most of the disorders associated with more than one factors like environment and nutrition but some disorders are mainly occur due to one factor only. So, there is need to understand the reason behind a particular cause and way to overcome it with a specific management approach. Among the nutritional disorders, the deficiencies of micronutrients (Zh, Bo, Mn etc.,) are more prevalent in Indian orchards rather than macronutrients. This review not only describes the cause of physiological disorders of fruit crops which lead to huge losses to fruit growers but also discusses the management practices to prevent it and retain the quality for higher market value.


  • To know the cause of physiological disorder is important to mitigate the particular disorder through sustainable management approach.

  • To overcome the physiological disorders which are barrier for quality fruit production is possible with the use of different management strategies like good agricultural practices, nutrient management, chemicals, use of cultivars etc.



Fruit crops, physiological disorders, causes, management approach.


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