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Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability
Year : 2016, Volume : 4, Issue : 2
First page : ( 99) Last page : ( 109)
Print ISSN : 2320-6411. Online ISSN : 2320-642X.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2320-642X.2016.00012.0

Joint Ventures of Plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Creating an Underground Revolution

Rakshit Amitava1,*, Pal Sumita2, Farooqui Alvina3, Parihar Manoj4, Yadav Ranjeet Singh4, Chattopadhyay Arghya4, Singh Harikesh Bahadur5

1Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Science, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

2WOS(A), Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Science, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

5Professor, Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

4Research Scholar, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Science, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

3Associate Professor, Department of Bioscience, Integral University, Lucknow, India

*Corresponding author E-mail id: amitavar@bhu.ac.in

Online published on 6 January, 2017.

Abstract

Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations with fungi which are prevalent and abundant and are omnipresent in most temperate and tropical ecosystems including agricultural systems. These ubiquitous symbiosis, called mycorrhizas which are formed by bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, function as conduits for the flow of energy and matter between plants and soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) symbiosis is receiving increased attention as a potential contributor to sustainable crop plant nutrition. Not only that, mycorrhizae aid in the absorption of micronutrients, excretespecific enzymes, restrict access to various pathogenic organisms and produce antibiotics to retard their growth, scour the surrounding earth for available water, and convert tightly bound nutrients such as phosphorous from mineral soils into forms that can be used by the plant. In return, plant allocates up to 20% of its photosynthate to the roots to support the fungus. AM is likely to prove to be the epicentre of a new revolution that the planet is in dire need for minimising the usage of chemical input on soil and helping the landscape adapt to climate change.

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Keywords

Biodiversity, Rhizosphere, Mycorrhiza, Osmolyte, Ecosystem functioning, Soil quality, Global change.

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