Impact of climate change and farm management
Climate change is all about increased temperature, altered precipitation regime and more recurrent frequency of extreme events. The global climate change resulted from anthropogenic activities. The major impact will be on the grain filling duration and incident radiation. The paradox is that areas that are currently most food-insecure will be most affected by climate change. Even a small change in climate may result in high social vulnerability. Since, climate change poses complex challenges like multiple abiotic stresses on crops and livestock, shortage of water, land degradation and affecting economies in addition to serious challenge to produce 40% more food, with limited land and water, using less energy. Due to climate change, the geographical shift of major field crops is likely to take place. Moreover, the useful insects are reducing which causes serious concerns to food and nutritional security. Furthermore, the excessive chemicals drained in water responsible for the development of dead zones due to which Marine Industries are bound further loss to the food and nutritional security for the ever increasing population. The biodiversity loss, climate change and the rising use of fertilizers are the major threat to our planet. The impact of climate change can be mitigated by suitable varieties and crop substitution, altering irrigation, water management practices the judicious use of fertilizers, manures and increased use of natural microbes that can fix nitrogen naturally. Similarly, the use of biofertilizers, biopesticides, biofungicides, and so on to reduce the chemical load and to sustain productivity. The conservation of natural resources (i.e., land and water) and better farm management practices will certainly help in not only enhancing production and productivity. Similarly, the integration of different components of the system, namely agriculture, livestock and agro/social forestry, will certainly be beneficial for the sustainability of the farms. Nevertheless, the practices of ecological agriculture, diversity farming, optimum levels of farm mechanization and reduction of postharvest losses become the key component for maintaining factor productivity. The adoption of climate-resilient agriculture, change in crop calendar and new techniques like SRI, crop diversification and pollination management techniques will definitely reduce the yield gap at the farm level. The strengthening of weather forecasting system, credit facilities, linking to the market with better storage facilities and/or infrastructural development, and so on will be key factors to obtain the optimum price of the farm produce at the right time and the right place. The adaptation to climate change should include autonomous as well as planned measures. Therefore, suitable adjustment and improvements over the existing practices are required at different levels to mitigate the negative impact of climate change at the farm level.
Climate change, Extreme events, Biodiversity, Natural resources, Farm management.