Evaluation of Botanicals to Manage Leaf Spots (Passalora arachidicola and Passalora personatum) of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Zoba Hamelmalo Region of Eritrea
*Corresponding Author: Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi, Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Keren, Eritrea, Email: email@example.com
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown globally and it is affected by many widespread diseases and infestations in all the groundnut growing areas. In Eritrea, leaf spot diseases are prevalent that is caused by fungi (Passalora arachidicola and P. personata) and results great losses. Botanical pesticides play an important role to control fungal infections due to their non-phytotoxic and ecofriendly nature. This study intended to evaluate the efficacy of selected botanicals viz., Neem (Azadirachta indica), Melia (Melia azadirach), Lantana (Lantana camara), Datura (Datura metel) and Marigold (Tagetes patula) on plant height, intensity of leaf spots disease and yield of groundnut in Hamelmalo zoba, Eritrea, during 2017–2018. Extract of neem leaves (5.66, 14.10 and 25.38%) showed high significance in plant height after 20, 40 and 60 days, respectively, as compared to untreated control (21.07%) and mancozeb (treated control). The lowest disease intensity was recorded in the application of neem extract (15%w/v) at different days after sowing. However, mancozeb (2 g/liter) was the most effective and followed by Neem > Melia > Lantana showed improvement in plant growth and maximum reduction in disease intensity. The highest reduction rate in ‘disease incidence’ and ‘disease severity’ was found in Neem extract application (63.11 and 40.29) after mancozeb (56.52 and 36.18) at 95 DAS at 5% significant level. Among the botanicals, plants treated with Neem extract was observed with highest number of pods (89.45) and yield (98.10 q/ha) followed by Melia (5% w/v) i.e. 87.59 and 95.02 respectively.
Botanicals, Disease incidence and severity, Groundnut, Leaf spots, Yield.