Significance and Traditional Medicinal Properties of Schleichera oleosa
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Kusum or Sagade (Schleichera oleosa) is well known tree of medicinal importance in India. All parts of Kusum are used in Indian Traditional Healing. The Traditional Healers use Kusum in simple as well as complex herbal formulations. Kusum based Herbal Formulations are popular among the Healers of present generation but it is really surprising that very few Kusum based Formulations are available in Global Drug Market as promising products. Schleichera trijuga Wild), is a tropical plant prevalent in Orissa and other parts of India (foliage: deciduous, and semi evergreen). That is locally called as “Kusum” (Hindi) and “Kusuma” (Oriya). It belongs to Family “Sapindaceae”. Fruiting season is usually in the monsoon. Fruits are simple, fleshy and of ‘Berry’ category which is either one seeded or two seeded Kusum oil’ is a novel substance that has been used by tribal people for their disease like, cold, itch, ulcer for both human and cattle. It was confirmed after the discussion with native inhabitants in the area where the “Kusum’ fruits were collected. Studies have also described the medicinal use of the ‘Kusum Oil’ which is traditionally used for the cure of itch, acne, burns, other skin troubles, rheumatism (external massage), hair dressing and promoting hair growth. Powdered seeds of Schleichera trijuga are used for ulcers and wounds of cattle to remove maggots and bark is used for skin imflammations and ulcers. The chemical composition of Schleichera trijuga seeds has been investigated by column chromatographic, ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometrie methods. Schleichera oleosa, belonging to the Sapindaceae family, has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer activity, and can be used for the production of biodiesel. The plant contains low tannin levels therefore it can be used as fodder for livestock. This species contains important phytochemicals such as terpenoids, betulin, betulinic acid etc. The literature reveals that this medicinal plant can be used as an alternative to synthetic compounds for use in preventing and treating several diseases. Considering the medicinal and environmental uses of this plant, this review is an effort to summarize nearly all the information reported on its various activities.
Rheumatism, column chromatography, livestock.