Chaos Theory and Nurses’ Perspectives on Child Abuse within the Family
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In Japan, most public health nurses (PHNs) manage the health conditions of mothers and children by means of medical examinations, interviews, and visits. They are, thus, able to confirm child abuse and provide insight as to whether the child's parent may be the abuser. However, PHNs tend to believe mothers. In this report, the difference between the Maternal and Child Health Law and the Child Abuse Prevention Law, as well as the limitations of PHNs thinking, are explained by means of chaos theory. There are fixed and chaotic states in chaos theory. Furthermore, female/male type thinking and subjectivity/objectivity type thinking may be equated to chaotic/fixed states. Because clients can rearrange their thoughts in counseling, their confused consciousness, including their subconsciousness, will decrease. When clients clearly recognize the problems in their consciousness, we may equate this to changing from a chaos state to a fixed state. A counselor accepts subjective standards of clients in order to understand their confusion. Counselors must become chaotic type thinkers because of a lack of acceptance in fixed type thinking. The skills "listening, reception, and synesthesia" are possible in chaotic type thinking. Given that objective standards are not part of counseling, modifying client's objective mistakes is not required in counseling. Furthermore, Japanese PHNs are thoroughly guided to chaotic type thought because the skills "listening, reception, and synesthesia" are taught to them. Both the counselor and client's thinking are rearranged in the direction of a fixed state during counseling. However, this is not taught to PHNs. Therefore, it is highly possible that PHNs disregard objective standards because of inclining to chaotic type thinking. Furthermore, with "reception and synesthesia", some PHNs acknowledge mothers may be abusers. A person whose subconsciousness believes, "I hope that a person before my eyes sees me as a good female/male" can easily have chaotic type thoughts with no objective standards. Therefore, a few PHNs accept mothers talking to them during a visit. Consequently, they will not confirm a child's safety. Theoretically, affirmation of a child's safety by PHNs in charge of maternal and child health is equal to using one's mobile phone while driving. The evasion from the danger of "reception and synesthesia" with respect to mothers and confirmation of children's safety must be separated. For PHNs who obey laws, fixed type thinking is more important than chaotic type thinking.
Chaos theory, listening, reception, synesthesia, counseling, child abuse, subconsciousness, objective standard.