A Study of the Perceptions towards Nursing Profession amongB. Sc. Nursing Students Enrolled In Western Maharashtra
*Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The health sector grew from 2.75(in 2008) to 4.8 lakh corers (in 2012) and is poised to grow to INR 9.64 lakh corers by 2017. Nurses comprise of 50–55% of health care workforce. By 2017, India need 17, 53, 000 nurses and by 2022 there is need of 36, 45, 000 nurses. According to the Union health ministry of India is currently facing a shortage of over 60% nurses. WHO said, "The states with the worst healthcare human resource shortages are also the ones with the worst health indicators and highest infant and child mortality. There is big gap in production-demand and supply, which is leading to shortage of nurses in all cadres. The number of students applying to degree nursing programs across the nation is decreasing. It is observed in Western Maharashtra that private Colleges of nursing who are offering degree courses in nursing, nearly 40% seats are remaining vacant (MUHS 2013.). One of the reasons could be the perceptions towards nursing profession. Therefore the researcher felt a need to determine the perceptions of B. Sc. nursing students towards nursing profession ‘of Western Maharashtra. The objectives of the study were: 1)To find out socio-demographic characteristics of students enrolled in B. Sc. Nursing colleges of western Maharashtra2)To assess the perception towards the nursing profession among B. Sc. Nursing students enrolled at selected nursing colleges of western Maharashtra. 3)To determine if association existed between perceptions of the B. Sc. Nursing students and selected demographical variables asadmission year, age, gender, religion/casteplace of residence, percentageof marksin 12th PCBE, andfamily income, 4) To identify the influencing factors/reasons for enrollment to B. Sc nursing programme at selected nursing colleges of western Maharashtra 5) Io identifies correlation between perceptions of B. Sc. Nursing students towards nursing profession and influencing factors to enroll at selected nursing colleges of western Maharashtra. Hypothesis: (H1): There is significant relationship between perception and selected demographical variables of B. Sc. nursing students. (H2): There is significant correlation between perceptions and influencing factors among B. Sc. Nursing students enrolled in western Maharashtra.
The method of sampling was the systematic random sampling method. Data was collected by using structured interview schedule. The tool consisted of 3 parts. First part consists of demographic data of the samples; Second part consists of structured Linkert scale statements elated to the perception of students and third part was Stem responses to identify the factors influencing for enrollment to nursing. The questionnaire contains fourteen stem responses (Yes, No and Not sure) Last one question was open ended. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics
The analysis shows that in all six colleges’ seats (mean 23.10%} were vacant among all the four batches of B. Sc. Nursing. As compared to constituent colleges of deemed universities, more vacancies were found in colleges affiliated to MUHS Nasik., May be due to complicated admission procedure through MH-CET and central admission procedure through rounds. However admission flow was increasing as of the year 2011–12 to 2014–15. This was mainly due to opportunity for Government jobs through competitive examination.DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS: Age; All students were between the ages from 18 to 21 years, Mean age for 440 subjects were 19 years and 76 subjects were above twenty-two years. Gender: oftwo third subjects were females whereas one third were males as this profession is dominated by females. Religion and Caste Majority of the subjects (33.42%), about one third were from Hindu open caste, second majority were Christians (27.95%)then scheduled caste (22.27%) and other backward class (12.27%), Muslims were very minor (4.095%), Residence: Subjects from urban area were more (60%)as compared to rural residents(40%) especially number of females were significant.
Hardly (9%) were married including (0.90%) divorced rest all was unmarried.Socio-economical status: Subjects were from (66.36%) low Socioeconomic group income per annum was up to rupees one lakh(24.09%) were had income up to twolakh, hardly 09.55% were had income above 2 lakh. Levels of perception and factor analysis: Present study found tout of 440 subjects, (59.09%) had ‘Good’ perception (40.45%) had ‘Average’ perception and hardly (t00.46%)) had ‘Poor’ perception towards the nursing profession. the researcher used factor analysis to determine if underlying constructs could be identified in the data. The three sub-area were labeled as “Aspect of Care”, “the nursing as a profession”, and. ‘Social status and socio-economic benefits’-(Futuristic perception) regarding ‘nursing care’ subject's perception was found ‘good, ’ (Strongly agree) ranging mean from 4.34 to 4.54. Perception regarding characteristics of the nursing profession such a ‘noble profession, dignified, respected profession and nurse is key person in health care system’ were also found good (strongly agree), whereas other statements were perceived as average, simply (agree). Perceptions regarding social status and socio economic benefits of nursing profession, subjects had’ good’ perception and they were strongly agreed for opportunities at regional, national and international level. Association between demographic variables and the level of perception: A Age and Seniority were.increasing. Perception of the subjects were declining and those who had average perception at the time of admission, they were moving towards’ Good’ perception as they were becoming seniors. Other demographic variables and the level of perception had no association…The findings of the study support the research hypothesis. (H1) is accepted.).Factors or reasons influencing to enroll to B. Sc. nursing: influencing factors were divided into two parts”internal environmental factors and external environmental factors. The theoretical framework of Pierre Bourdieu of social capital used in this study personal or group perception is determined by culture through process of socialization. This theory was supported as. Internal environmental factors like attitude, knowledge, motivation, experience, expectations and personal attributes. And external environmental factors like opportunities and availability of Jobs and job security, opportunities for personal fulfillment and advancement were dominating. Co-relation between perception towards nursing among B. Sc. nursing students and factors influencing to enroll in nursing colleges in Western Maharashtra. To find out main factors influencing to enroll (Y) for B. Sc. nursing at Western Maharashtra were calculated. by Karl Pearson correlation coefficient between (X) and (Y) and answer is 0.172, which is statistically significant (P value is less than0.0001). The findings of the study support the research hypothesis that there is correlation between perception towards nursing and factors influencing to enroll in B. Sc. nursing at nursing colleges of Western Maharashtra
Perception, nursing profession, care aspect, social and economical benefits, critical thinking, weaker section.