Classical Music Therapy Influences Physiological Parameters in Preterm Neonates
*Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Neonates are unique and distinctive from the rest of pediatric population due to particular problems related to extrauterine adaptations, anatomical and physiological immaturity. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the effect of classical music therapy on physiological parameters among preterm neonates.
The research approach of the study was Quasi experimental with time series design. Classical music (Instrumental Flute) was played for 50 preterm babies of 30–36 weeks of gestation with MP3 player, using head phone for a total duration of 30 minutes at 20 to 30dB-SPL. Heart rate and oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter were monitored along with respiratory rate and recorded at 5-minute intervals during the therapy period and for the pre-music and after music therapy period, the time intervals were 2.5 minutes. The study duration was 60 minutes, 15 minutes before music therapy (BMT), 30 minutes of music therapy (DMT) and 15 minutes after music therapy (AMT). 50 preterm neonates admitted in newborn nursery were selected by convenient sampling and studied for four consecutive days. Day 1 and 3 for music therapy (experimental group) and day 2 and four as the control group when no music was played through the head phone. Here the subjects act as the control group on alternate days.
Mean HR value on day 1 and 3 (with music were significantly lower during the music (DMT) and after music (AMT) phases compared to BMT (139.1± 10.9(BMT), 128.9± 10.3 (DMT) and 128.9 ± 10.3 (AMT); BMT Vs DMT (F= 584.25, P<0.001, BMT Vs AMT (F= 295.76, P<0.001). In contrast, day 2 and 4 (control-no music), there were no differences in mean HR during the three phases of observation (139.4± 11.4 (BMT), 139.9±11.4 (DMT) and 140.4±11.2 (AMT); BMT Vs DMT and BMT Vs AMT-NS). The mean respiratory rate on experimental groups (Day 1 and Day 3) with music were significantly lower during the music (DMT) and after music (AMT) phases compared to BMT (53.5 ± 6.2 (BMT), 44.8± 5.3 (DMT), 46.5± 5.6 (AMT); BMT Vs DMT (F=374.12, P= <0.001), BMT Vs AMT (F= 206.12, P= <0.001). In contrast, there were no differences in the respiratory rate in the three phases on day 2 and 4 when no music was played (50.6 ± 4 (BMT), 51±3.9 (DMT), 50.8± 3.8 (AMT); BMT Vs DMT, BMT Vs AMT, NS). No apnoeic bradycardia events were noted during music therapy. Likewise mean SpO2 values on day 1 and 3 with music were significantly higher during music and after music phases than the baseline values (BMT) (96.4 ± 1.3(BMT), 99.5 ± 0.9(DMT), 98.6 ± 0.8(AMT); BMT Vs DMT (F=579.42, P<0.001), BMT Vs AMT (F=283.42, P<0.001). In contrast, there were no differences in the oxygen saturation values in the three phases on day 2 and 4 when no music was played (97.1± 1.4 (BMT), 96.9± 1.4(DMT), 96.9± 1.4 (AMT); BMT Vs DMT, NS BMT Vs AMT, NS).
Listening to classical music as used in this study, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) lowering of resting Heart Rate and Respiratory rate and a consistent improvement of oxygen saturation was noted. These effects appear to persist beyond the music therapy for a short period and may play a useful role to achieve relaxation for babies in NICU.
dB-Decibel, SPL-Sound Pressure Level, NS-Not significant, NICU-Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.