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Instructions to Authors

Scope and purpose

Applied Biological Research (ABR) offers a mean of prompt publication of original research papers, short communications and short notes dealing all the aspects of applied biological sciences viz., agriculture, veterinary, ecology and environment, biotechnology and other applied biological fields. ABR welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meets the general criteria of significance and academic excellence. Conceptual high quality review articles of paramount significance in applied biological sciences may also be considered. However, authors are advised to seek prior consent from the Chief Editor for submission of a review article. All the manuscripts published in ABR are peer reviewed.

Manuscript submission

The manuscripts or the essence of their contents, must have not been previously published nor should be under simultaneous consideration by any other journal. Authors along with manuscript submission need to specifically declare if any similar work has been submitted to or published by any other journal. All the manuscripts received will be checked for duplicate publication and plagiarism. If detected, appropriate action will be taken in accordance with International Ethical Guideline. Three hard copies of manuscript, complete in all respects including figures, tables, plates, etc., should be submitted to the Chief Editor, Applied Biological Research, Centre for Advancement of Applied Sciences (CAAS), Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir - 190 025 (India) either by surface mail or via e-mail caas.abr@gmail.com. Contribution should be concise and must not exceed ten printed pages including tables and illustrations in case of a full-length paper and five printed pages in case of a short communication and two pages in case of a short note. Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly recommended, provided that the text, tables and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word file. Manuscript may also be submitted on diskette, using any major word processing software. The diskette should be clearly labeled with the author's name, the title of manuscript and the software used. The manuscript may be submitted as e-mail attachment to the Chief Editor, ABR mailed to caas.abr@gmail.com After submission, a manuscript will be assigned Index Number and the same will be communicated to the corresponding author within 48 hours. The corresponding author has to submit duly signed Author's Declaration-cum-Copyright Transfer Certificate and token submission fee of Rs. 500/= (US $ 10/=) no sooner the Index Number to the manuscript is assigned.

Author's Declaration-cum-Copyright Transfer Certificate

Submission of a manuscript implies that the:

The manuscript, or the essence of work presented, has neither been published previously elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract or a part of published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint) nor is under consideration for publication elsewhere in any other journal. The manuscript has not been submitted/published elsewhere in the same form or in any other language, without the written consent of the publisher. The paper has exclusively been submitted to this journal only.

  1. The manuscript is the original work of the author(s) and not copied (in whole or in part) from any other work.

  2. The manuscript presents the work conducted by the authors as a part of M.Sc. /Ph.D. thesis research submitted to ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (name of the Institute/University) OR Research Project work approved by the ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (name of Institution/University) and all the Funding Agencies have duly been acknowledged in the manuscript.

  3. The manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors as well as tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities at the Institute/ university where the work has been carried out.

  4. All the authors have practically contributed to the work described in the manuscript and their practical contribution in the research work presented is as ..., ..., ..., & ...% in descending order of authorship.

  5. If and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to the automatic transfer of the Copyright to the Publisher i.e. Centre for Advancement of Applied Sciences, Srinagar, J&K (India).

  6. The manuscript as such or its any part will not be published by the authors elsewhere in any language without the consent of the Copyright holder;

  7. Written permission for the materials/information used from other copyrighted sources; has been obtained by the authors and that any costs associated with obtaining this permission are the author's responsibility. No material/information submitted as part of this manuscript infringes the existing copyrights, or the rights of a third party.

  8. If any of above information is found incorrect the Editorial Board may initiate any action, including the outright rejection of paper, blacklisting of authors, passing on the information to the concerned institute/ university for appropriate action, etc.

While submitting a manuscript, the corresponding author must ensure to send the above certificate, duly signed by all the authors reflecting the paper title and names of all authors and their e-mail addresses as well. The papers without the above certificate will not be considered for publication.

Peer-review process

All the manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Board and by qualified reviewers from the concerned field. The corresponding authors must submit, along with manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of at least 4 potential reviewers. It is the sole right of the editor to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers will be considered. The reviewer's comments will be sent to corresponding author for appropriate action. Manuscripts and figures for review will not be returned to authors whether the editorial decision is to accept, revise, or reject. All short notes must include at least one table and/ or one figure.

Preparation of the manuscript

Manuscript should be in English typed double space on good quality A-4 size bond paper in single column format with ample margin on left side. The pages should be numbered consecutively. The manuscripts may be organized as under:

Title: It should be short, specific, informative and written in capital letters. The title should be without any abbreviations and should enlighten the contents of the manuscript. The name(s) of author(s) should be written on next line after the title followed by the address of the department(s) and institution(s) from where the work was actually carried out. Each author's affiliation or a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution at which the work was performed be also given. The title of the paper, name (s) of author (s), complete address (including telephone number and e-mail address) and a short running title may also be given on a separate page. If the research paper is a part of M.Sc. or Ph.D. thesis submitted to any University/Institution, it is obligatory upon the authors to mention the same as a footnote on the very first page.

Abstract: It should concise and informative. It should briefly describe the purpose of work, techniques and methods used, main findings with some data & conclusions. Neither references be cited nor abbreviations be used in this part. The abstract should not exceed 200 words for full length paper and 150 words for a short communication.

Key words: It should follow the abstract. A maximum of seven key words relevant to the work be given. Abstract and key words may be given on a separate page.

Abbreviations: Non-standard abbreviations should be listed and full form of each abbreviation should be given in parentheses at first use in the text.

Introduction: Beginning with a new page, it should be brief and limited to the statement of the problem, clearly define the current knowledge gaps with brief literature survey pertinent to the type of work presented, proposed solution, scope and justification of the work done and objectives of the experiments.

Materials and methods: It should include relevant details on the nature of material, experimental design, the techniques employed and statistical methods used. Well-established procedures need not to be described instead relevant references be cited. However, new methods or modifications of previous published methods, if any, may be fully described. Be sure that sufficient information is given to allow others to repeat the experiments. Capitalize trade names and indicate the manufacturer's name, make & model of the instrument/ equipment and the source of material used in experiments.

Results and discussion: The Results and discussion should be clubbed to avoid the repetition of statements. It should include important findings discussed in concise manner. Wherever necessary, elaborate on the tables and figures without repeating their contents. Interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this work and past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of paper.

Acknowledgements (if necessary): It is obligatory on the authors to acknowledge the people who provided assistance in manuscript preparation, funding for research, facilities for work, etc. It must be precise and put at the end but prior to references.

References: The references in the text must be cited as (Bhat, 1991; Mir and Wani, 1992; Malik et al., 1995). All the references cited in text should be listed at the end of the manuscript in alphabetic order according to the surname of the first author. The name of the journal cited should not be abbreviated but complete name of the journal should be given. The specimen for quoting references is given below:

Harley, J.L. 1989. The significance of mycorrhizae. Mycological Research, 92: 129-139.

Hander, H.L., Neuvonen, S., Seibar, T. and Petrini, A. 1993. Simulated acid rain affects birch leaf endophyte population. Microbial Ecology, 26: 227-236.

Walter, H. 1973. Vegetation of the Earth. Springer Verlag, New York, USA. p. 274.

Dar, G.H., Anand, R.C. and Sharma, P.K. 1993. Genetically engineered microorganisms to rescue plants from frost injury. pp. 1-19. In: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ Biotechnology, Volume 49 (ed. F. Flechture), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Zargar, M.Y. and Johri, B.N. 1989. Effect of HCH on amylolytic and proteolytic activities of soil microorganisms. pp. 85-87. In: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Impact and Management of Pollutants on Crop Productivity, Feb., 16-18, 1989, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, India.

When two or more works of an author has been published during the same year, the reference should be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication. This should be followed both in the text and reference section. The papers in preparation or submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be quoted in reference section but should be mentioned in text only as (Sharma, A.K., University of Kolkata, personal communication). The author is responsible for the accuracy and completeness of references and for their correct textual citation. Failure to do so may result in the paper being withdraw from the evaluation process.

Tables: It should be typed on separate sheets and numbered consecutively in Arabic numbers. Each table should have a heading stating its contents including units clearly and concisely. Foot note to tables should be referred to by italic superscript letters beginning with 'a' in each table. Tables should be explanatory enough to be understandable without any text reference. The data provided should be analyzed one using appropriate statistical method.

Figures: It should be of good quality and neatly drawn in black Indian ink on good quality tracing paper. The captions of figures should be concise and typed on a separate page, not on the figure area. The figures should not exceed 18 x 15 cm size. Figures should be self-explanatory. Information presented in the figure should not be repeated in the table. All symbols and abbreviations used in the illustrations should be defined clearly. Figure legends should be given below the figures.

Photographs: The photographs for publication should be of high contrast on glossy paper without folds or creases. Each illustration or plate should be as a separate sheet with the name(s) of author(s) and figure number printed lightly with soft pencil on the reverse side.

Equations: All the equations should be type written. Mathematical notations should be simple and suitable for multi-disciplinary audience. Meaning of all the symbols used should be given immediately after the equation at first use. All the data should be in metric units with a maximum of two decimals. The data must be statistically analyzed. The papers not conforming to the above format will not be processed.

Units: Internationally accepted rules and the international system of units (SI) should be used. If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Nomenclature: For biological nomenclature, the conventions of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature should be followed. The scientific names of all living materials (plants, insects, birds, mammals, bacteria, fungi, etc.) along with authority should be mentioned in parentheses at first use of their English term. The chemical nomenclature, as laid down in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their genuine Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.

Ethical consent: All authors have to follow the ethical guidelines for journal publication. All the manuscripts reporting the findings of experimental study involving human/ animal subjects should provide a statement confirming that each subject or subject's guardian obtains an informed consent, after the approval of experimental protocol by the ethics committee or IRB. Authors have to state in the manuscript that the work presented has been conducted in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for Experiments Involving Humans [http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/ 10policies/b3/index.html]; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for Animal Experiments [http://ec.europa.eu/ environment/chemicals/lab_animals/ legislation_en.htm]; Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals [http://www.icmje.org]. While reporting the experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed or not. Needless cruelty in animal experimentations is not acceptable to the journal.

Plagiarism

The journal holds no responsibility for plagiarism. If a published paper is found later to be extensively plagiarized and is found to be a duplicate or redundant publication, a note of retraction will be published, and copies of the correspondence will be sent to the authors' Head of the Institute/University.

Conflict of interest: Authors must disclose the Conflicts of interest at the end of manuscript. Also, they must disclose the financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.

Contributors: Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so the roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and disclosed.

Authorship issue: All authors must have substantially contributed to the concept and design of study or in data collection, analysis and interpretation or in critical writeup of the manuscript. Authors are expected to carefully list and order the authors prior to manuscript submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship is discouraged by the journal, unless and until proper reasons for the act is provided by corresponding authors along with written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors, including the affected ones, that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. Only in rare cases the journal considers such changes in authorship.

Galley proof

The Editorial Office will send galley proof of the accepted manuscript to the corresponding author as an email attachment for final proof reading. It will be the responsibility of corresponding author to return the galley proof materials appropriately corrected within the stipulated time. Authors will be asked to check any typographical or minor clerical errors in the manuscript at this stage. No major changes in the manuscript shall be permitted.

Reprints

The authors shall have to bear nominal processing charges for publication. The authors interested to purchase reprints should send their reprint requests at the time of submission of the revised manuscript.

Disclaimer: The manuscripts, short communications and short notes published by the journal (ABR) represent the sole opinions of their authors. The publisher shoulders no responsibility or liability what so ever for the use or misuse of the information published by the journal.

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