Bacteriophage Therapy: A Novel Tool for Combating Bacterial Diseases of Poultry - A Review
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Bacteriophages are an attractive tool for antibacterial therapy, for biocontrol of bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, for control of water- and food-borne pathogens, for controlling environmental microflora, in plant protection and notably for various fatal infections of both humans and animals. Seeing the emergence of antibiotic resistance in animals and humans, and food safety concerns like residual effects of antibiotics in poultry meat and products, there is a growing interest in finding viable alternatives for disease prevention and growth-enhancing supplements. New modalities of treatment like bacteriophages, avian egg antibodies, probiotics, cytokines and others need to be explored to their full practical potential. In this context, bacteriophages have been proposed as potential candidates to serve as an alternative to antibiotics in animal disease prevention and control, and can be particularly very effective in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections both in humans and in animals. Bacteriophages are viruses that subsist on bacteria and have proved to be the best biocontrol agents by lysing bacterial entities. In the recent past, research on the application of bacteriophages has focused on the treatment of enteric and respiratory infections in livestock and in poultry and food products. Poultry is a dynamic industry with high economic returns; however, different bacterial pathogens cause severe economic losses. A number of studies have indicated the applicability of bacteriophages in fighting various bacterial infections of poultry, both as prophylactics and as therapeutic agents viz., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Listeria monocytogenes, responsible for colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Thus, these are helpful in preventing food-borne and zoonotic bacterial pathogens. In this paper, both the potential and applications of bacteriophages for treating bacterial infections of poultry have been discussed.
Bacteriophage, Antibiotics, Intestines, Carcass, Poultry Disease, Diarrhoea, Treatmen.